The specific nature of truck operation determines some peculiarities of their design. This applies not only to the technological solutions used in the design process, but also to the maintenance of trucks. In the material of the article, we will briefly consider some features of the device and maintenance of the truck.
Key design differences between trucks and passenger cars
Most trucks are engaged in freight transportation. This process implies the presence of restrictions on the time of delivery. In this case, as a rule, as a rule, the deadlines can not be disrupted in any case. For example, food products have their own limited shelf life, exceeding which will lead to spoilage of goods and losses.
Therefore, the primary task in designing a truck is to achieve maximum reliability while maintaining maintainability and low price. Obeying the rules dictated by the specifics of work, the design and maintenance of trucks has certain differences from passenger cars. Let’s consider the main features in the design, inherent in almost all trucks:
- Frame body construction. In passenger cars, almost all bodies are load-bearing. Trucks can not afford it. The heavy loads carried are incompatible with the load-bearing body concept because of the low stiffness and generally low strength of this technical solution. Therefore, the vast majority of trucks are built on rigid frames.
- Pin-rod suspension design. Ball pins in a multi-lever suspension or MacPherson design allow the vehicle to be softer and steerable.
In high axle load applications, kingpins are more reliable and durable. In addition, the kingpin joint is cheaper and often allows for maintenance of this assembly, which is almost always eliminated in ball mounts.
- Springs instead of springs. The leaf spring suspension is stiffer than the spring suspension, but at the same time more reliable. The leaf springs can also support higher loads.
- Reliable, de-fortified diesel engines with high torque and impressive displacement. For trucks, it is not the engine’s power that matters, but the availability of high torque, preferably shifted to low rpm. This allows trucks to start up and down steep gradients without any problems.
These and some other features impose their own restrictions on the operation and maintenance of trucks.
Features of the device and maintenance of the truck
With the specifics of the design of trucks are closely related to some moments of maintenance. Untrained motorists who moved from cars to trucks, do not immediately delve into all the nuances of maintenance.
At first glance, almost everything in the design and maintenance of trucks is the same or very similar to passenger cars. There are regulations for maintenance and servicing, TO-1, TO-2 and so on. Indeed, the main points of maintenance do not differ from those for passenger cars. But there are still some key differences.
Briefly consider the important points in the maintenance of trucks, which are not always given enough attention:
- Mandatory inspection of the frame and body joints. The heavy weights carried by trucks place serious stresses on the frame. And it is not uncommon for important load-bearing elements to break on the route.
- Lubrication of springs, syringing of kingpins, cardan crosses and other moving units equipped with oilers. It is absolutely necessary to familiarize yourself with the lubrication map of the truck and do not forget to lubricate all moving parts.
- Thorough inspection of not only brake pads, but also lines, working cylinders, fluid level in the reservoir (for hydraulic system), the operability of the brake valve and the integrity of the receivers (for pneumatic system). A loaded vehicle with brake system problems is a dangerous road user.
Because of all of the features discussed above, trucks are usually given more attention during maintenance than passenger cars.